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Jakob (Jaap) joined the University of Huddersfield in October 2011 as a Research Professor, with his primary objective the re-establishment of the Medium Energy Ion Scattering (MEIS) Facility, formerly based at STFC Daresbury Laboratory within the International Institute for Accelerator Applications at Huddersfield. Officially reopened in 2015 after extensive upgrading, the MEIS laboratory under his charge, is now part of the UK National Ion Beam Centre, funded by EPSRC to provide analytical support to the UK research community.
After obtaining his Ir. degree in Applied Physics from the University of Groningen in the Netherlands, he moved to the UK to undertake postgraduate research in the Department of Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering at the University of Salford, obtaining his PhD in 1979. Following an Adjunct Lectureship in Physics at the University of Arhus (DK) and a 6-year Senior Scientific Officer post in the Department of Chemistry at UMIST, he returned to the University of Salford as Lecturer in Electronic and Electrical Engineering, was later promoted Senior Lecturer and after moving to Physics, to Reader in Physics in 2000. In 2003 he became Professor of Ion Beam Physics at Salford where, from 2003 to 2007, he was also Head of Physics.
Throughout his academic research career, Jaap has been involved in the use and study of ion beams for materials analysis and modification, including low energy ion scattering (LEIS) and SIMS for surface analysis, medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) for materials characterisation, and ultra-low energy ion implantation for shallow doping. At Salford, he was in charge of the Low Energy Ion Beam Laboratory, established with major support from EPSRC/DTI under the Link Nanotechnology Scheme. An active user of the MEIS facility at STFC Daresbury since its establishment in 1996, he has applied and developed MEIS for the high-resolution depth profiling of the damage build-up and dopant accumulation due to ultra-shallow implants into Si. Within the EU FP6 funded ANNA project, jointly with partners in 6 other EU countries he developed MEIS as a quantitative technique, with sub nm depth resolution, for the characterisation of dielectric layers of nanometre thickness for gate oxides and capacitors in CMOS applications. He has extensively collaborated with industry on CMOS front-end Si processing and low energy ion-beam transport issues of high current positive ion beams (e.g. ion beam plasmas & charge exchange/neutralisation). As an industrial consultant he has designed ion beam and surface analytical equipment. Currently he is the PI on a TSB funded RAMPUP collaborative Huddersfield/industry research project.
England, J., M�ller, W., Van den Berg, J., Rossall, A., Min, W. and Kim, J. (2017) ‘Combining dynamic modelling codes with medium energy ion scattering measurements to characterise plasma doping’ Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms . ISSN 1872-9584
Popovici, M., Groven, B., Marcoen, K., Phung, Q., Dutta, S., Swerts, J., Meersschaut, J., Van den Berg, J., Franquet, A., Moussa, A., Vanstreels, K., Lagrain, P., Bender, H., Jurczak, M., Van Elshocht, S., Delabie, A. and Adelmann, C. (2017) ‘Atomic Layer Deposition of Ruthenium Thin Films from (Ethylbenzyl) (1-Ethyl-1,4-cyclohexadienyl) Ru: Process Characteristics, Surface Chemistry, and Film Properties’ Chemistry of Materials , 29 (11), pp. 4654-4666. ISSN 0897-4756
Agocs, E., Zolnai, Z., Rossall, A., Van den Berg, J., Fodor, B., Lehninger, D., Khomenkova, L., Ponomaryov, S., Gudymenko, O., Yukhymchuk, V., Kalas, B., Heitmann, J. and Petrik, P. (2017) ‘Optical and structural characterization of Ge clusters embedded in ZrO2’ Applied Surface Science . ISSN 0169-4332
Van den Berg, J., Zalm, P., Bailey, P., Rossall, A. and Reading, M. (2016) ‘Quantitative considerations in medium energy ion scattering depth profiling analysis of nanolayers’ Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms , 387, pp. 77-85. ISSN 0168-583X
Van den Berg, J., Zalm, P., Bailey, P., Rossall, A. and Reading, M. (2016) ‘Quantitative considerations in Medium Energy Ion Scattering’. In: High Resolution Depth Profiling Conference (HRDP08), 7th-11th August 2016, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada
Zolnai, Z., Petrik, P., Deak, A., Pothorszky, S., Zambo, D., Vertesy, G., Nagy, N., Rossall, A. and Van den Berg, J. (2016) ‘A Three Dimensional Analysis of Au-Silica Core-Shell Nanoparticles Using Medium Energy Ion Scattering’. In: High Resolution Depth Profiling Conference (HRDP08), 7th-11th August 2016, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada , p. P9
Noakes, T., Mistry, S., Cropper, M., Rossall, A. and Van den Berg, J. (2016) ‘MEIS studies of oxygen plasma cleaning of copper for fast response time photocathodes used in accelerator applications’. In: High Resolution Depth Profiling Workshop (HRDP08), 7, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada , pp. 53-54
Popovici, M., Redolfi, A., Aoulaiche, M., van den Berg, J., Douhard, B., Swerts, J., Bailey, P., Kaczer, B., Groven, B., Meersschaut, J., Conard, T., Moussa, A., Adelmann, C., Delabie, A., Fazan, P., Van Elshocht, S. and Jurczak, M. (2015) ‘Understanding the EOTJg degradation in Ru/SrTiOx/Ru metalinsulatormetal capacitors formed with Ru atomic layer deposition’ Microelectronic Engineering , 147, pp. 108-112. ISSN 0167-9317
Van den Berg, J., Bailey, P., Barlow, R., Noakes, T., Kilcoyne, S. and Cywinski, R. (2014) ‘The UK MEIS facility: a new future at the IIAA, Huddersfield’. In: 23rd Conference on Accelerators in Research and Industry,, 25-30 May 2014, San Antonio, Texas, USA
Van den Berg, J., Reading, M., Bailey, P., Noakes, T., Adelmann, C., Popovici, M., Tielens, H., Conard, T., de Gendt, S. and van Elshocht, S. (2013) ‘Medium energy ion scattering for the high depth resolution characterisation of high-k dielectric layers of nanometer thickness’ Applied Surface Science , 281, pp. 8-16. ISSN 0169-4332
Hinks, J., Jones, A., Theodosiou, A., Van den Berg, J. and Donnelly, S. (2012) ‘Transmission Electron Microscopy Study of Graphite underin situIon Irradiation’ Journal of Physics: Conference Series , 371, p. 012046. ISSN 1742-6596
Barlow, R. and Van den Berg, J. (2012) ‘The UK MEIS facility’. In: Proceedings of the Third International Particle Accelerator Conference. New Orleans, Louisiana, USA: JACoW. pp. 4151-4153. ISBN 978-3-95450-115-1
Abrams, K., Hinks, J., Pawley, C., Greaves, G., Van den Berg, J., Eyidi, D., Ward, M. and Donnelly, S. (2012) ‘Helium irradiation effects in polycrystalline Si, silica, and single crystal Si’ Journal of Applied Physics , 111 (8), pp. 083527-083533. ISSN 0021-8979
Demenev, E., Giubertoni, D., Van den Berg, J., Reading, M. and Bersani, M. (2012) ‘Calibration correction of ultra low energy SIMS profiles based on MEIS analyses for arsenic shallow implants in silicon’ Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms , 273, pp. 192-194. ISSN 0168-583X
Donnelly, S., Hinks, J., Pawley, C., Abrams, K. and Van den Berg, J. (2012) ‘An in-situ TEM study of the effects of 6 keV He ion irradiation on Si and SiO2’ Journal of Physics: Conference Series , 371, p. 012045. ISSN 1742-6596
Hourdakis, E., Nassiopoulou, A., Parisini, A., Reading, M., Van den Berg, J., Sygellou, L., Ladas, S., Petrik, P., Nutsch, A., Wolf, M. and Roeder, G. (2011) ‘Electrical and structural properties of ultrathin SiON films on Si prepared by plasma nitridation’ Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures , 29 (2), p. 022201. ISSN 1071-1023
Mohacsi, I., Petrik, P., Fried, M., Lohner, T., Van den Berg, J., Reading, M., Giubertoni, D., Barozzi, M. and Parisini, A. (2011) ‘Characterisation of ultra-shallow disorder profiles and dielectric functions in ion implanted Si’ Thin Solid Films , 519 (9), pp. 2847-2851. ISSN 0040-6090
Hinks, J., Van den Berg, J. and Donnelly, S. (2011) ‘MIAMI: Microscope and ion accelerator for materials investigations’ Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films , 29 (2), p. 021003. ISSN 07342101
Bangert, U., Bleloch, A., Gass, M., Seepujak, A. and Van den Berg, J. (2010) ‘Doping of few-layered graphene and carbon nanotubes using ion implantation’ Physical Review B , 81 (24), p. 245423. ISSN 1098-0121
Sygellou, L., Ladas, S., Reading, M., Van den Berg, J., Conard, T. and De Gendt, S. (2010) ‘A comparative X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and medium-energy ion-scattering study of ultra-thin, Hf-based high-k films’ Surface and Interface Analysis , 42 (6-7), pp. 1057-1060. ISSN 0142-2421
H�nicke, P., Beckhoff, B., Kolbe, M., Giubertoni, D., Van den Berg, J. and Pepponi, G. (2010) ‘Depth profile characterization of ultra shallow junction implants’ Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry , 396 (8), pp. 2825-2832. ISSN 1618-2642
Reading, M., Van den Berg, J., Zalm, P., Armour, D., Bailey, P., Noakes, T., Parisini, A., Conard, T. and De Gendt, S. (2010) ‘High resolution medium energy ion scattering analysis for the quantitative depth profiling of ultrathin high-k layers’ Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures , 28 (1), pp. C1C65-70. ISSN 1071-1023
Parisini, A., Morandi, V., Van den Berg, J., Reading, M., Giubertoni, D., Bailey, P. and Noakes, T. (2009) ‘A Combined Approach to the Determination of As Depth Profiling in Si Ultra Shallow Junctions’. In: MRS 2009 Fall Meeting, 30th November - 4th December 2011, Boston
Kolbe, M., Beckhoff, B., Krumrey, M., Reading, M., Van den Berg, J., Conard, T. and De Gendt, S. (2009) ‘Characterisation of High-k Containing Nanolayers by Reference-Free X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis with Synchrotron Radiation’ ECS Transactions , 25 (3), pp. 293-300. ISSN 1938-5862
Van den Berg, J., Reading, M., Parisini, A., Kolbe, M., Beckhoff, B., Ladas, S., Fried, M., Petrik, P., Bailey, P., Noakes, T., Conard, T. and De Gendt, S. (2009) ‘High Depth Resolution Depth Profile Analysis of Ultra Thin High-? Hf Based Films using MEIS Compared with XTEM, XRF, SE and XPS’ ECS Transactions , 25 (3), pp. 349-361. ISSN 1938-5862
Petrik, P., Milita, S., Pucker, G., Nassiopoulou, A., Van den Berg, J., Reading, M., Fried, M., Lohner, T., Theodoropoulou, M., Gardelis, S., Barozzi, M., Ghulinyan, M., Lui, A., Vanzetti, L. and Picciotto, A. (2009) ‘Preparation and Characterization of Nanocrystals using Ellipsometry and X-ray Diffraction’ ECS Transactions , 25 (3), pp. 373-378. ISSN 1938-5862
Hourdakis, E., Theodoropoulou, M., Nassiopoulou, A., Parisini, A., Reading, M., Van den Berg, J., Conard, T. and Degendt, S. (2009) ‘Comparison oF Electrical Measurements with Structural Analysis of Thin High-k Hafnium-based Films’ ECS Transactions , 25 (3), pp. 363-372. ISSN 1938-5862
Van den Berg, J., Reading, M., Armour, D., Carter, G., Zalm, P., Bailey, P. and Noakes, T. (2009) ‘Medium energy ion scattering analysis of the evolution and annealing of damage and associated dopant redistribution of ultra shallow implants in Si’ Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids , 164 (7-8), pp. 481-491. ISSN 1042-0150
Giubertoni, D., Pepponi, G., Beckhoff, B., Hoenicke, P., Gennaro, S., Meirer, F., Ingerle, D., Steinhauser, G., Fried, M., Petrik, P., Parisini, A., Reading, M., Streli, C., Van den Berg, J., Bersani, M., Secula, E., Seiler, D., Khosla, R., Herr, D., Michael Garner, C., McDonald, R. and Diebold, A. (2009) ‘Multi-technique characterization of arsenic ultra shallow junctions in silicon within the ANNA consortium’ AIP Conference Proceedings , 1173, pp. 45-49. ISSN 0094-243X
Nutsch, A., Beckhoff, B., Altmann, R., Van den Berg, J., Giubertoni, D., Hoenicke, P., Bersani, M., Leibold, A., Meirer, F., M�ller, M., Pepponi, G., Otto, M., Petrik, P., Reading, M., Pfitzner, L. and Ryssel, H. (2009) ‘Complementary Metrology within a European Joint Laboratory’ Solid State Phenomena , 145-14, pp. 97-100. ISSN 1662-9779
Nassiopoulou, A., Gianneta, V., Huffman, M., Reading, M., Van den Berg, J., Tsiaoussis, I. and Frangis, N. (2008) ‘Self-assembled hexagonal ordering of Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 nanodots’ Nanotechnology , 19 (49), p. 495605. ISSN 0957-4484
Conard, T., Franquet, A., Vandervorst, W., Reading, M., Van den Berg, J., Van Elschocht, S., Schram, T., Adelmann, C. and De Gendt, S. (2008) ‘Physical Characterization of the Metal/High-k Layer Interaction upon Annealing’ ECS Transactions , 16 (5), pp. 433-442. ISSN 1938-5862
Parisini, A., Morandi, V., Solmi, S., Merli, P., Giubertoni, D., Bersani, M. and Van den Berg, J. (2008) ‘Quantitative determination of the dopant distribution in Si ultrashallow junctions by tilted sample annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy’ Applied Physics Letters , 92 (26), p. 261907. ISSN 0003-6951
Saheli, G., Conti, G., Uritsky, Y., Foad, M., Brundle, C., Mack, P., Kouzminov, D., Werner, M. and Van den Berg, J. (2008) ‘Characterization of an ultrashallow junction structure using angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and medium energy ion scattering’ Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures , 26 (1), pp. 298-304. ISSN 1071-1023
Werner, M., Van den Berg, J., Armour, D., Carter, G., Feudel, T., Herden, M., Bersani, M., Giubertoni, D., Ottaviano, L., Bongiorno, C., Mannino, G., Bailey, P. and Noakes, T. (2005) ‘Shallow BF[sub 2] implants in Xe-bombardment-preamorphized Si: The interaction between Xe and F’ Applied Physics Letters , 86 (15), p. 151904. ISSN 0003-6951
Werner, M., Van den Berg, J., Armour, D., Carter, G., Feudel, T., Herden, M., Bersani, M., Giubertoni, D., Bailey, P. and Noakes, T. (2004) ‘The interaction between Xe and F in Si (100) pre-amorphised with 20keV Xe and implanted with low energy BF2’ Materials Science and Engineering: B , 114-11, pp. 198-202. ISSN 0921-5107
Werner, M., Van den Berg, J., Armour, D., Van Der Vorst, W., Collart, E., Goldberg, R., Bailey, P. and Noakes, T. (2004) ‘Damage accumulation and dopant migration during shallow As and Sb implantation into Si’ Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms , 216, pp. 67-74. ISSN 0168-583X
Van den Berg, J., Armour, D., Zhang, S., Whelan, S., Werner, M., Collart, E., Goldberg, R., Bailey, P. and Noakes, T. (2002) ‘Damage and Dopant Profiles Produced by Ultra-Shallow Boron And Arsenic Ion Implants into Silicon at Different Temperatures Characterised by Medium Energy Ion Scattering.’ MRS Proceedings , 717. ISSN 1946-4274
Van den Berg, J., Armour, D., Zhang, S., Whelan, S., Ohno, H., Wang, T., Cullis, A., Collart, E., Goldberg, R., Bailey, P. and Noakes, T. (2002) ‘Characterization by medium energy ion scattering of damage and dopant profiles produced by ultrashallow B and As implants into Si at different temperatures’ Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures , 20 (3), p. 974. ISSN 0734-211X
Van den Berg, J., Zhang, S., Whelan, S., Armour, D., Goldberg, R., Bailey, P. and Noakes, T. (2001) ‘Medium energy ion scattering for the characterisation of damage profiles of ultra shallow B implants in Si’ Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms , 183 (1-2), pp. 154-165. ISSN 0168-583X
Whelan, S., Armour, D., Van den Berg, J., Goldberg, R., Zhang, S., Bailey, P. and Noakes, T. (2000) ‘Implant temperature dependence of transient-enhanced diffusion in silicon (100) implanted with low-energy arsenic ions’ Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing , 3 (4), pp. 285-290. ISSN 1369-8001
Zalm, P., Van den Berg, J., van Berkum, J., Bailey, P. and Noakes, T. (2000) ‘Low-energy grazing-angle argon-ion irradiation of silicon: A viable option for cleaning?’ Applied Physics Letters , 76 (14), pp. 1887-1889. ISSN 0003-6951
Hatzopoulos, N., Suder, S., Van den Berg, J., Panknin, D., Fukarek, W., Donnelly, S., Cook, C., Armour, D., Lucassen, M., Frey, I., Foad, M., England, J., Moffatt, S., Bailey, P., Noakes, T. and Ohno, H. (1997) ‘Range and damage distributions in ultra-low energy boron implantation into silicon’. In: Ion implantation technology--96: proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology. : Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. pp. 527-530. ISBN 9780780332898
Medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) for the high depth resolution analysis of shallow implants and high–k dielectric nano layers. The characterisation of beam plasmas using mass/energy analysis and probe analysis
Teaching Company In 1995, jointly with Prof Dave Armour, I was awarded a DTI funded Teaching Company Scheme, together with Applied Materials, Horsham (UK) and after 1997, responsible for its management. It involved the development of sophisticated beam characterisation equipment that has yielded vital information on the factors limiting high current low energy ion beam transport and has contributed to new ion source developments. Providing university and industrially based training for 2 RA’s, both of whom have subsequently become key Applied Materials R&D personnel, this project was completed early 2000, and received the highest possible evaluation, (grade 1) and a TCS Certificate of Excellence.
“Development of low energy ion beam technology”, (TCS with Applied Materials, Horsham (‘95–‘00) DTI/EPSRC, £ 120k
Industrial R&D funding from Applied Materials. The project involved the construction of an extension to the Salford low energy implanter and the subsequent measurement of charge exchange cross sections of ion species relevant to low energy ion implanters which have yielded unique data.
“Charge exchange studies”, Applied Materials (1999-2001 & 2003-05) £100 k.
Consultancy Feasibility study of multi-aperture ion source, involving ion source modification and testing. Applied Materials (2002) £ 2k
Consultancy Retained as a R&D Consultant by VSW Scientific Instruments from 1986–90, I designed and developed a low pressure discharge ion gun (AS10/20 – more than 25 units sold), a duoplasmatron micro-focussed ion gun beamline (6 systems sold) and independent movement 2-axes goniometers for ARXPS/UPS. Also made substantial contributions to the design and construction of two large (> £500k) low energy beam systems for ion beam deposition studies, supplied to JAERI (Japan) and University of Texas (USA). Return for the Research Group was primarily in the form of providing research student support and donation of equipment (£30k).
Consultancy As a spin-off of my early research, I designed two UHV compatible high-precision, 3- and 2-axes sample goniometers, later commercially licensed for manufacture to Panmure Instruments Ltd of Newbury (Berks) by SUBS. Over the last three decades in excess of 20 instruments have been sold. Retained as a consultant by Panmure.
Patents Holder of 2 patents in conjunction with collaborators at Applied Materials.
Equipment aquisition As a result of the long term R&D relationship with Applied Materials, the group at Salford has acquired Applied’s PLUTO research ion implanter (estimated value £ 500 k) free of charge in 2001. As this machine’s ion optics were equivalent to a modern commercial implanter, it was used for novel PhD research on the physics of ion beam beam plasma formation as well as the characterisation and low energy beam transport. Additional R&D funding from Applied Materials was been obtained in 2006 (£ 12k).
Commercial Contracts with US based semiconductor companies for MEIS analysis of ultra-low energy As and B implants, attracted on the basis of research publications £ 4.3 k (2004). Further commercial work was secured in 2011 and channelled directly to MEIS facility at Daresbury Lab. (£ 6k and £ 20k)
Contract MEIS analysis US semi-conductor equipment manufacturer for the analysis of Plasma doping processes in Si by MEIS ($ 46k) 2015-17
Research appointment - however will be teaching on the MSc in Accelerator Science starting in October 2012