Portrait of Professor Roger Phillips Professor Roger Phillips

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r.m.phillips@hud.ac.uk | 01484 471675


Following a BSc in Marine Biology and Biochemistry (Joint Honours) from University College of North Wales, Bangor, Roger specialised in Cancer Pharmacology gaining his PhD in 1988 from the University of Bradford (under Profs John Double and Mike Bibby). After an initial postdoctoral position in Bradford, he moved to the School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles to work with Dr Neil Gibson in 1991. He returned to Bradford in 1993 and secured academic appointments as lecturer (1996 to 2001), Senior Lecturer (2001 to 2003) and Reader (2003 to 1014) in Cancer Pharmacology. In July 2014, Roger was appointed as Professor of Cancer Pharmacology at the University of Huddersfield. He was also appointed as Director of Research in the School of Applied Sciences in August 2015.

His research focuses on the preclinical and early clinical evaluation of novel anti-cancer drugs with a specific interest in the tumour microenvironment as a target for drug development. His research has had clinical impact through the development of EO9 as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of superficial bladder cancer. He has published extensively in internationally recognised journals, has successfully supervised over 20 PhD students and continues to present his work at national and international conferences. He is a committee member of the European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Drug Development Committee and the Pharmacology and Molecular Mechanism Group. He is also an editorial board member for the British Journal of Pharmacology. 

Research and Scholarship

Roger has over 28 years experience in the preclinical and early clinical development of novel anti-cancer drugs publishing over 100 in peer-reviewed journals. He has expertise in all areas of preclinical drug development ranging from cell free to in vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics studies including participation in clinical trials. Of the compounds he has worked on, several have progressed to clinical trial (Flavone Acetic Acid, AQ4N, RH1, Phortress) but his major achievement is providing the rationale and pre-clinical evidence to progress EO9 (a bioreductive pro-drug targeting the tumour microenvironment) into clinical trial against superficial bladder cancer. Together with Urologists at Bradford Royal Infirmary, he designed and oversaw the conduct of the clinical trial that demonstrated that EO9 was clinically active. EO9 is currently undergoing phase III clinical evaluation in North America and Europe. He has worked closely with a number of medicinal chemists to provide pharmacological information on the mechanism of action of novel compounds and has the experience and expertise to progress compounds through preclinical testing to early clinical trial.

His current research interests include:

  • Preclinical development of novel anti-cancer drugs
  • Phenotype based screening
  • Development of experimental models that reflect the complexity of tumour biology
  • The hypoxic tumour microenvironment as a target for drug development
  • Drug delivery to hypoxic regions of solid tumours

Publications and Other Research Outputs


Phillips, R., Hendriks, H., Sweeney, J., Reddy, G. and Peters, G. (2017) ‘Efficacy, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of Apaziquone in the treatment of non- muscle invasive bladder cancerExpert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology . ISSN 1742-5255

Allison, S., Sadiq, M., Baronou, E., Cooper, P., Dunnill, C., Georgopoulos, N., Latif, A., Shepherd, S., Shnyder, S., Stratford, I., Wheelhouse, R., Willans, C. and Phillips, R. (2017) ‘Preclinical anti-cancer activity and multiple mechanisms of action of a cationic silver complex bearing N-heterocyclic carbene ligandsCancer Letters . ISSN 0304-3835

Hubbard, M., Jove, M., Loadman, P., Phillips, R., Twelves, C. and Smye, S. (2017) ‘Drug delivery in a tumour cord model: a computational simulationRoyal Society Open Science . ISSN 2054-5703

Aradhyula, B., Kalidasan, M., Gangele, K., Deb, D., Shepherd, S., Phillips, R., Poluri, K. and Kollipara, M. (2017) ‘Synthesis, Structural and Biological Studies of Some Half-Sandwich d6-Metal Complexes with Pyrimidine-Based LigandChemistrySelect , 2 (6), pp. 2065-2076. ISSN 2365-6549

Basri, A., Lord, R., Allison, S., Rodr�guez-B�rzano, A., Lucas, S., Janeway, F., Shepherd, H., Pask, C., Phillips, R. and McGowan, P. (2017) ‘Bis-Picolinamide ruthenium (III) dihalide complexes: dichloride to diiodide exchange generates single trans isomers with high potency and cancer cell selectivityChemistry - A European Journal . ISSN 0947-6539


Lord, R., Crossley, B., Hebden, A., McMullon, M., Fisher, J., Phillips, R. and McGowan, P. (2016) ‘?-Diketonate Titanium Compounds Exhibiting High In Vitro Activity and Specific DNA Base BindingChemistrySelect , 1 (20), pp. 6598-6605. ISSN 2365-6549

Ayuso, J., Virumbrales-Mu�oz, M., Lacueva, A., Lanuza, P., Checa-Chavarria, E., Botella, P., Fern�ndez, E., Doblare, M., Allison, S., Phillips, R., Pardo, J., Fernandez, L. and Ochoa, I. (2016) ‘Development and characterization of a microfluidic model of the tumour microenvironmentScientific Reports , 6, p. 36086. ISSN 2045-2322

Adhikari, S., Sutradhar, D., Shepherd, S., Phillips, R., Chandra, A. and Rao, K. (2016) ‘Synthesis, structural, DFT calculations and biological studies of rhodium and iridium complexes containing azine Schiff-base ligandsPolyhedron , 117, pp. 404-414. ISSN 0277-5387

Palepu, N., Adhikari, S., Premkumar, R., Verma, A., Shepherd, S., Phillips, R., Kaminsky, W. and Kollipara, M. (2016) ‘Half?sandwich ruthenium, rhodium and iridium complexes featuring oxime ligands: Structural studies and preliminary investigation of in vitro and in vivo anti?tumour activitiesApplied Organometallic Chemistry . ISSN 0268-2605

Adhikari, S., Palepu, N., Sutradhar, D., Shepherd, S., Phillips, R., Kaminsky, W., Chandra, A. and Kollipara, M. (2016) ‘Neutral and cationic half-sandwich arene ruthenium, Cp*Rh and Cp*Ir oximato and oxime complexes: Synthesis, structural, DFT and biological studiesJournal of Organometallic Chemistry , 820, pp. 70-81. ISSN 0022-328X

Phillips, R (2016) ‘Targeting the hypoxic fraction of tumours using hypoxia activated prodrugsCancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology , 77 (3), pp. 441-457. ISSN 0344-5704

Lucas, S., Lord, R., Basri, A., Allison, S., Phillips, R., Blacker, A. and McGowan, P. (2016) ‘Increasing anti-cancer activity with longer tether lengths of group 9 Cp* complexesDalton Transactions (16). ISSN 1477-9226

Javid, F., Phillips, R., Afshinjavid, S., Verde, R. and Ligresti, A. (2016) ‘Cannabinoid pharmacology in cancer research: A new hope for cancer patients?European Journal of Pharmacology . ISSN 0014-2999


Kaner, R., Allison, S., Faulkner, A., Phillips, R., Roper, D., Shepherd, S., Simpson, D., Waterfield, N. and Scott, P. (2015) ‘Anticancer metallohelices: nanomolar potency and high selectivityChemical Science . ISSN 2041-6520

Lord, R., Hebden, A., Pask, C., Henderson, I., Allison, S., Shepherd, S., Phillips, R. and McGowan, P. (2015) ‘Hypoxia Sensitive Metal ?-Ketoiminate Complexes Showing Induced Single Strand DNA Breaks and Cancer Cell Death by ApoptosisJournal of Medicinal Chemistry , 58 (12), pp. 4940-4953. ISSN 0022-2623

Mohamed, H., Lake, B., Laing, T., Phillips, R. and Willans, C. (2015) ‘Synthesis and anticancer activity of silver(I)– N-heterocyclic carbene complexes derived from the natural xanthine products caffeine, theophylline and theobromineDalton Transactions , 44 (16), pp. 7563-7569. ISSN 1477-9226

Rodr�guez-B�rzano, A., Lord, R., Basri, A., Phillips, R., Blacker, A. and McGowan, P. (2015) ‘Synthesis and anticancer activity evaluation of ?5-C5(CH3)4R ruthenium complexes bearing chelating diphosphine ligandsDalton Transactions , 44 (7), pp. 3265-3270. ISSN 1477-9226

Ramirez, Y., Mladek, A., Phillips, R., Gynther, M., Rautio, J., Ross, A., Wheelhouse, R. and Sakaria, J. (2015) ‘Evaluation of Novel Imidazotetrazine Analogues Designed to Overcome Temozolomide Resistance and Glioblastoma RegrowthMolecular Cancer Therapeutics , 14, pp. 111-119. ISSN 1535-7163


Wong, C., Periasamy, N., Sagineedu, S., Sidik, S., Sumon, S., Loadman, P., Phillips, R., Lajis, N. and Stanslas, J. (2014) ‘In vitro 3D colon tumor penetrability of SRJ09, a new anti-cancer andrographolide analogInvestigational new drugs , 32 (5), pp. 806-814. ISSN 0167-6997

Kalidasan, M., Forbes, S., Mozharivskyj, Y., Ahmadi, M., Ahmadihosseini, Z., Phillips, R. and Kollipara, M. (2014) ‘Mononuclear half-sandwich cyclic-p-perimeter platinum group metal complexes having bithiazole ligands: Synthesis, molecular and anti- cancer studiesInorganica Chimica Acta , 421, pp. 349-358. ISSN 0020-1693

Wong, C., Sagineedu, S., Sumon, S., Sidik, S., Phillips, R., Lajis, N. and Stanslas, J. (2014) ‘NCI in vitro and in silico anticancer screen, cell cycle pertubation and apoptosis-inducing potential of new acylated, benzylidene and isopropylidene derivatives of andrographolideEnvironmental Toxicology and Pharmacology , 38 (2), pp. 489-501.

Faulkner, A., Kaner, R., Abdallah, Q., Clarkson, G., Fox, D., Gurnani, P., Howson, S., Phillips, R., Roper, D., Simpson, D. and Scott, P. (2014) ‘Asymmetric triplex metallohelices with high and selective activity against cancer cellsNature Chemistry , 6 (9), pp. 797-803. ISSN 17554330

Lord, R., Mannion, J., Hebden, A., Nako, A., Crossley, B., McMullon, M., Janeway, F., Phillips, R. and McGowan, P. (2014) ‘Mechanistic and Cytotoxicity Studies of Group IV b-Diketonate ComplexesChemMedChem Communications , 9 (6), pp. 1136-1139. ISSN 1860-7179

Allison, S., Knight, J., Granchi, C., Rani, R., Minutolo, F., Milner, J. and Phillips, R. (2014) ‘Identification of LDH-A as a therapeutic target for cancer cell killing via (i) p53/NAD(H)-dependent and (ii) p53 independent pathwaysOncogenesis , 3 (e102), pp. 1-11. ISSN 2157-9024

Groh, C., Hubbard, M., Jones, P., Loadman, P., Periasamy, R., Sleeman, B., Smye, S., Twelves, C. and Phillips, R. (2014) ‘Mathematical and computational models of drug transport in tumoursInterface: Journal of the Royal Society , 11 (94), p. 1173. ISSN 1742-5662

Almodares, Z., Lucas, S., Crossley, B., Basri, A., Pask, C., Hebden, A., Phillips, R. and McGowan, P. (2014) ‘Rhodium, Iridium, and Ruthenium Half-Sandwich Picolinamide Complexes as Anticancer AgentsInorganic Chemistry , 53 (2), pp. 727-736. ISSN 0020-1669

Ahmadi, M., Ahmadihosseini, Z., Allison, S., Begum, S., Rockley, K., Sadiq, M., Chintamaneni, S., Lokwani, R., Hughes, N. and Phillips, R. (2014) ‘Hypoxia modulates the activity of a series of clinically approved tyrosine kinase inhibitorsBritish Journal of Pharmacology , 171 (1), pp. 224-236. ISSN 0007-1188


Brabec, V., Howson, S., Kaner, R., Lord, R., Malina, J., Phillips, R., Abdallah, Q., McGowan, P., Rodger, A. and Scott, P. (2013) ‘Metallohelices with activity against cisplatin-resistant cancer cells; does the mechanism involve DNA binding?Chemical Science , 4 (12), pp. 4407-4416. ISSN 2041-6520

Pletsas, D., Garelnabi, E., Li, L., Phillips, R. and Wheelhouse, R. (2013) ‘Synthesis and Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationship of Imidazotetrazine Prodrugs with Activity Independent of O6-Methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase, DNA Mismatch Repair and p53.Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 56 (174), pp. 7120-7132. ISSN 0022-2623

Groome, N., Elboray, E., Inman, M., Dondas, H., Phillips, R., Kilner, C. and Grigg, R. (2013) ‘Carbophilic 3-component cascades: access to complex bioactive cyclopropyl diindolylmethanesChemistry - A European Journal , 19 (6), pp. 2180-2184. ISSN 0947-6539

Donnelly, O., Errington-Mais, F., Steele, L., Hadac, E., Jennings, V., Scott, K., Peach, H., Phillips, R., Bond, J., Pandha, H., Harrington, K., Vile, R., Russell, S., Selby, P. and Melcher, A. (2013) ‘Measles virus causes immunogenic cell death in human melanomaGene Therapy , 20 (1), pp. 7-15. ISSN 0969-7128

Phillips, R., Hendriks, H. and Peters, G. (2013) ‘EO9 (Apaziquone): from the clinic to the laboratory and back againBritish Journal of Pharmacology , 168 (1), pp. 11-18. ISSN 0007-1188


Lucas, S., Lord, R., Wilson, R., Phillips, R., Sridharan, V. and McGowan, P. (2012) ‘Synthesis of iridium and ruthenium complexes with (N,N), (N,O) and (O,O) coordinating bidentate ligands as potential anti-cancer agentsDalton Transactions , 41 (45), pp. 13800-13802. ISSN 1477-9226

Kazmi, N., Hossain, M. and Phillips, R. (2012) ‘A hybrid cellular automaton model of solid tumor growth and bioreductive drug transport.IEEE/ACM transactions on computational biology and bioinformatics , 9 (6), pp. 1595-1606. ISSN 1545-5963

Kazmi, N., Hossain, M., Phillips, R., Al-Mamum, M. and Bass, R. (2012) ‘Avascular tumour growth dynamics and the constraints of protein binding for drug transportation.Journal of Theoretical Biology , 313, pp. 142-152. ISSN 0022-5193

Garelnabi, E., Pletsas, D., Li, L., Kiakos, K., Karodia, N., Hartley, J., Phillips, R. and Wheelhouse, R. (2012) ‘A Strategy for Imidazotetrazine Prodrugs with Anti-cancer Activity Independent of MGMT and MMRACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters , 3 (12), pp. 965-968. ISSN 1948-5875

Abdallah, Q., Phillips, R., Johansson, F., Helleday, D., Cosentino, L., Abdel-Rahman, H., Etzad, J., Wheelhouse, R., Kiakos, K., Bingham, J., Hartley, J., Patterson, L. and Pors, K. (2012) ‘Minor structural modifications to alchemix influence mechanism of action and pharmacological activityBiochemical Pharmacology , 83 (11), pp. 1514-1522. ISSN 0006-2952

McMahon, K., Volpato, M., Chi, H., Musiwaro, P., Poterlowicz, K., Peng, Y., Scally, A., Patterson, L., Phillips, R. and Sutton, C. (2012) ‘Characterization of changes in the proteome in different regions of 3D multicell tumor spheroids.Journal of Proteome Research , 11 (5), pp. 2863-2875.

Monteiro, D., Phillips, R., Crossley, B., Fielden, J. and Willans, C. (2012) ‘Enhanced cytotoxicity of silver complexes bearing bidentate N-heterocyclic carbene ligandsDalton Transactions , 41 (13), pp. 3720-3725. ISSN 1477-9226

Qiao, B., Kerr, M., Groselj, B., Teo, M., Knowles, M., Bristow, R., Phillips, R. and Kiltie, A. (2012) ‘Imatinib Radiosensitizes Bladder Cancer by Targeting Homologous RecombinationCancer Research , 73 (5), pp. 1611-1620. ISSN 00085472


Maurice, H., Phillips, R. and Karodia, N. (2009) ‘Design, Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel acridine-polyamine conjugates against prostate cancerAfrican Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology , 3 (12), pp. 602-610. ISSN ISSN 1996-0816

Shervington, L., Smith, N., Norman, E., Ward, T., Phillips, R. and Shervington, A. (2009) ‘To determine the cytotoxicity of chlorambucil and one of its nitro-derivatives, conjugated to prasterone and pregnenolone, towards eight human cancer cell-lines.European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 44 (7), pp. 2944-2951. ISSN 0223-5234

Jain, A., Phillips, R., Scally, A., Lenaz, G., Beer, M. and Puri, R. (2009) ‘Response of multiple recurrent TaT1 bladder cancer to intravesical apaziquone (EO9): comparative analysis of tumor recurrence ratesUrology , 73 (5), pp. 1083-1086.

Evans, C., Phillips, R., Jones, P., Loadman, P., Sleeman, B., Twelves, C. and Smye, S. (2009) ‘A mathematical model of doxorubicin penetration through multicellular layersJournal of Theoretical Biology , 257 (4), pp. 598-608. ISSN 0022-5193


Evans, A., Bates, V., Troy, H., Hewitt, S., Chung, Y., Phillips, R., Stubbs, M., Griffiths, J. and Airely, R. (2008) ‘Glut-1 as a therapeutic target: increased chemoresistance and HIF-1-independent link with cell turnover is revealed through COMPARE analysis and metabolomic studies.Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology , 61 (3), pp. 377-393. ISSN 0344-5704

Albertella, M., Loadman, P., Jones, P., Phillips, R., Rampling, R., Burnet, N., Alcock, C., Anthoney, A., Vjaters, E., Dunk, C., Harris, P., Wong, A., Lalani, A. and Twelves, C. (2008) ‘Hypoxia-Selective Targeting by the Bioreductive Prodrug AQ4N in Patients with Solid Tumors: Results of a Phase I StudyClinical cancer research , 14 (4), pp. 1096-1104. ISSN 1078-0432


Volpato, M., Abou-Zeid, N., Tanner, R., Glassbrook, L., Taylor, J., Stratford, I., Loadman, P., Jaffar, M. and Phillips, R. (2007) ‘Chemical synthesis and biological evaluation of a NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1–targeted tripartite quinone drug delivery systemMolecular Cancer Therapeutics , 6 (12), pp. 3122-3130. ISSN 1535-7163

Seville, S., Phillips, R., Shnyder, S. and Wright, C. (2007) ‘Synthesis of cryptolepine analogues as potential bioreducible anticancer agentsBioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry , 15 (19), pp. 6353-6360. ISSN 0968-0896

Volpato, M. and Phillips, R. (2007) ‘Tailoring Targeted Therapy to Individual Patients: Lessons to be Learnt from the Development of Mitomycin CCancer genomics and proteomics , 4 (3), pp. 175-186. ISSN 1109-6535,


Puri, R., Palit, V., Loadman, P., Flannigan, M., Shah, T., Choudry, G., Basu, S., Double, J., Lenaz, G., Chawla, S., Beer, M., Van Kalken, C., de Boer, R., Beijnen, J., Twelves, C. and Phillips, R. (2006) ‘Phase I/II pilot study of intravesical apaziquone (EO9) for superficial bladder cancerJournal of Urology , 176 (4), pp. 1344-1348.

Pavillard, V., Nicolaou, A., Double, J. and Phillips, R. (2006) ‘Methionine dependence of tumours: a biochemical strategy for optimizing paclitaxel chemosensitivity in vitroBiochemical Pharmacology , 71 (6), pp. 772-778. ISSN 0006-2952


Palit, V., Phillips, R., Puri, R., Shah, T. and Bibby, M. (2005) ‘Expression of HIF-1alpha and Glut-1 in human bladder cancerOncology Reports , 14 (4), pp. 909-913. ISSN 1021-335X

Volpato, M., Seargent, J., Loadman, P. and Phillips, R. (2005) ‘Formation of DNA interstrand cross-links as a marker of Mitomycin C bioreductive activation and chemosensitivityEuropean Journal of Cancer , 41 (9), pp. 1331-1338. ISSN 0959-8049

Airley, R., Phillips, R., Evans, A., Double, J., Burger, A., Feibig, H., West, C. and Stratford, I. (2005) ‘Hypoxia-regulated glucose transporter Glut-1 may influence chemosensitivity to some alkylating agents: results of EORTC (First Translational Award) study of the relevance of tumour hypoxia to the outcome of chemotherapy in human tumour-derived xenografts.International journal of oncology , 26 (6), pp. 1477-1484. ISSN 1019-6439

Ferguson, R., Jackson, S., Stanley, A., Joyce, A., Harnden, P., Morrison, E., Patel, P., Phillips, R., Selby, P. and Banks, R. (2005) ‘Intrinsic chemotherapy resistance to the tubulin-binding antimitotic agents in renal cell carcinomaInternational Journal of Cancer , 115 (1), pp. 155-163. ISSN 0020-7136

Onyeibor, O., Croft, S., Dodson, H., Feiz-Haddad, M., Kendrick, H., Millington, N., Parapini, S., Phillips, R., Seville, S., Shnyder, S., Taramelli, D. and Wright, C. (2005) ‘Synthesis of some cryptolepine analogues, assessment of their antimalarial and cytotoxic activities, and consideration of their antimalarial mode of actionJournal of Medicinal Chemistry , 48 (7), pp. 2701-2709. ISSN 0022-2623


Phillips, R., Jaffar, M., Maitland, D., Loadman, P., Shnyder, S., Steans, G., Cooper, P., Race, A., Patterson, A. and Stratford, I. (2004) ‘Pharmacological and biological evaluation of a series of substituted 1,4-naphthoquinone bioreductive drugsBiochemical Pharmacology , 68 (11), pp. 2107-2116. ISSN 0006-2952

Basu, S., Brown, J., Flannigan, G., Gill, J., Loadman, P., Martin, S., Naylor, B., Puri, R., Scally, A., Seargent, J., Shah, T. and Phillips, R. (2004) ‘NAD(P)H:Quinone oxidoreductase-1 C609T polymorphism analysis in human superficial bladder cancers: relationship of genotype status to NQO1 phenotype and clinical response to Mitomycin CInternational Journal of Oncology , 25 (4), pp. 921-927. ISSN 1019-6439

Basu, S., Brown, J., Flannigan, G., Gill, J., Loadman, P., Martin, S., Naylor, B., Scally, A., Seargent, J., Shah, T., Puri, R. and Phillips, R. (2004) ‘Immunohistochemical analysis of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase and NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase in human superficial bladder tumours: relationship between tumour enzymology and clinical outcome following intravesical mitomycin C therapyInternational Journal of Cancer , 109 (5), pp. 703-709. ISSN 0020-7136

Phillips, R., Basu, S., Brown, J., Flannigan, G., Loadman, P., Martin, S., Naylor, B., Puri, R. and Shah, T. (2004) ‘Detection of (NAD(P)H:Quinone oxidoreductase-1, EC 609C-->T and 465C-->T polymorphisms in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human tumour tissue using PCR-RFLPInternational journal of oncology , 24 (4), pp. 1005-1010. ISSN 1019-6439

Pavillard, V., Drbal, A., Swaine, D., Phillips, R., Double, J. and Nicolaou, A. (2004) ‘Analysis of cell-cycle kinetics and sulfur amino acid metabolism in methionine-dependent tumor cell lines; the effect of homocysteine supplementationBiochemical Pharmacology , 67 (8), pp. 1587-1599. ISSN 0006-2952

Phillips, R. and Basu, S. (2004) ‘Biological and Clinical Significance of Polymorphisms in NAD(P)H: Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1)Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine , 2 (1), pp. 75-82. ISSN 1570-1603

Hall, M., Martin, C., Ferguson, D., Phillips, R., Hambley, T. and Callaghan, R. (2004) ‘Comparative efficacy of novel platinum(IV) compounds with established chemotherapeutic drugs in solid tumour modelsBiochemical Pharmacology , 67 (1), pp. 17-30. ISSN 0006-2952


Suggitt, M., Fearnley, J., Swaine, D., Volpato, M., Phillips, R., Bibby, M., Loadman, P. and Anderson, D. (2003) ‘Comet assay and flow cytometry analysis of DNA repair in normal and cancer cells treated with known mutagens with different mechanisms of actionTeratogenesis, Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis , 23 (S2), pp. 13-29. ISSN 1520-6866

Jaffar, M., Phillips, R., Williams, K., Mrema, I., Cole, C., Wind, N., Ward, T., Stratford, I. and Patterson, A. (2003) ‘3-substituted-5-aziridinyl-1-methylindole-4,7-diones as NQO1-directed antitumour agents: mechanism of activation and cytotoxicity in vitroBiochemical Pharmacology , 66 (7), pp. 1199-1206. ISSN 0006-2952

Cowen, R., Patterson, A., Telfer, B., Airely, R., Hobbs, S., Phillips, R., Jaffar, M., Stratford, I. and Williams, K. (2003) ‘Viral delivery of P450 reductase recapitulates the ability of constitutive overexpression of reductase enzymes to potentiate the activity of mitomycin C in human breast cancer xenograftsMolecular Cancer Therapeutics , 2, pp. 901-909. ISSN 1535-7163

Basu, S., Martin, S., Phillips, R. and Puri, R. (2003) ‘Obtaining archived pathological material for biomedical researchLancet , 361 (9366), pp. 1394-1394. ISSN 0140-6736


Loadman, P., Bibby, M. and Phillips, R. (2002) ‘Pharmacological approach towards the development of indolequinone bioreductive drugs based on the clinically inactive agent EO9British Journal of Pharmacology , 137 (5), pp. 701-709. ISSN 0007-1188

Nicholson, K., Phillips, R., Shnyder, S. and Bibby, M. (2002) ‘In vitro and in vivo activity of LS 4477 and LS 4559, novel analogues of the tubulin binder estramustineEuropean Journal of Cancer , 38 (1), pp. 194-204. ISSN 0959-8049


Phillips, R., Burger, A., Fiebig, H. and Double, J. (2001) ‘Genotyping of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) in a panel of human tumor xenografts: relationship between genotype status, NQO1 activity and the response of xenografts to Mitomycin C chemotherapy in vivoBiochemical Pharmacology , 62 (10), pp. 1371-1377. ISSN 0006-2952

Knowles, H. and Phillips, R. (2001) ‘Identification of differentially expressed genes in experimental models of the tumor microenvironment using differential displayAnticancer Research , 21 (4A), pp. 2305-2311. ISSN 0250-7005

Phillips, R. and Ward, T. (2001) ‘Influence of extracellular pH on the cytotoxicity and DNA damage of a series of indolequinone compoundsAnticancer Research , 21 (3B), pp. 1795-1801. ISSN 0250-7005

Wright, C., Addee-Kyereme, J., Breen, A., Brown, J., Cox, M., Croft, S., Gokcek, Y., Kendrick, H., Phillips, R. and Pollet, P. (2001) ‘Synthesis and evaluation of cryptolepine analogues for their potential as new antimalarial agentsJournal of Medicinal Chemistry , 44 (19), pp. 3187-3194. ISSN 0022-2623

Choudry, G., Hamilton Stewart, P., Double, J., Krul, M., Naylor, B., Flannigan, G., Shah, T., Brown, J. and Phillips, R. (2001) ‘A novel strategy for NQO1 (NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase, EC mediated therapy of bladder cancer based on the pharmacological properties of EO9British Journal of Cancer , 85 (8), pp. 1137-1146. ISSN 0007-0920

Phillips, R. and Bibby, M. (2001) ‘Hollow fiber assay for tumor angiogenesisMethods in Molecular Medicine , 46, pp. 87-93.


Phillips, R., Burger, A., Loadman, P., Jarrett, C., Swaine, D. and Fiebig, H. (2000) ‘Predicting tumor responses to mitomycin C on the basis of DT-diaphorase activity or drug metabolism by tumor homogenates: implications for enzyme-directed bioreductive drug developmentCancer Research , 60 (22), pp. 6384-6390. ISSN 0008-5472

Phillips, R., Burger, A., Loadman, P., Jarrett, C., Swaine, D. and Feibig, H. (2000) ‘Predicting Tumor Responses to Mitomycin C on the Basis of DT-Diaphorase Activity or Drug Metabolism by Tumor Homogenates: Implications for Enzyme-directed Bioreductive Drug DevelopmentCancer Research , 60, pp. 6384-6390. ISSN 0008-5472

Phillips, R (2000) ‘AACR-NCI-EORTC International Conference on Molecular Targets and Cancer TherapeuticsExpert Opinion on Investigational Drugs , 9 (3), pp. 631-638.

Loadman, P., Phillips, R., Lim, L. and Bibby, M. (2000) ‘Pharmacological properties of a new aziridinylbenzoquinone, RH1 (2,5-diaziridinyl-3-(hydroxymethyl)-6-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone), in miceBiochemical Pharmacology , 59 (7), pp. 831-837. ISSN 0006-2952

Saunders, M., Jaffar, M., Patterson, A., Nolan, J., Naylor, M., Phillips, R., Harris, A. and Stratford, I. (2000) ‘The relative importance of NADPH: cytochrome c (P450) reductase for determining the sensitivity of human tumour cells to the indolequinone EO9 and related analogues lacking functionality at the C-2 and C-3 positionsBiochemical Pharmacology , 59 (8), pp. 993-996. ISSN 0006-2952


Phillips, R., Naylor, M., Jaffar, M., Doughty, S., Everett, S., Breen, A., Choudry, G. and Stratford, I. (1999) ‘Bioreductive activation of a series of indolequinones by human DT-diaphorase: structure-activity relationshipsJournal of Medicinal Chemistry , 42 (20), pp. 4071-4080. ISSN 0022-2623

Phillips, R (1999) ‘Inhibition of DT-diaphorase (NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase, EC by 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA) and flavone-8-acetic acid (FAA): implications for bioreductive drug developmentBiochemical Pharmacology , 58 (2), pp. 303-310. ISSN 0006-2952


Phillips, R., Pearce, J., Loadman, P., Bibby, M., Cooper, P., Swaine, D. and Double, J. (1998) ‘Angiogenesis in the hollow fiber tumor model influences drug delivery to tumor cells: implications for anticancer drug screening programsCancer Research , 58 (23), pp. 5263-5266. ISSN 0008-5472

Phillips, R., Loadman, P. and Cronin, B. (1998) ‘Evaluation of a novel in vitro assay for assessing drug penetration into avascular regions of tumoursBritish Journal of Cancer , 77 (12), pp. 2112-2119. ISSN 0007-0920

Jaffar, M., Naylor, M., Robertson, N., Lockyer, S., Phillips, R., Everett, S., Adams, G. and Stratford, I. (1998) ‘5-substituted analogues of 3-hydroxymethyl-5-aziridinyl-1-methyl-2-[1H-indole-4,7-dione]prop-2-en- 1-ol (EO9, NSC 382459) and their regioisomers as hypoxia-selective agents: structure-cytotoxicity in vitroAnti-Cancer Drug Design , 13 (2), pp. 105-123. ISSN 0266-9536

Phillips, R (1998) ‘Prospects for bioreductive drug developmentExpert Opinion on Investigational Drugs , 7 (6), pp. 905-928.


Nicholson, K., Bibby, M. and Phillips, R. (1997) ‘Influence of drug exposure parameters on the activity of paclitaxel in multicellular spheroidsEuropean Journal of Cancer , 33 (8), pp. 1291-1298. ISSN 0959-8049

Phillips, R. and Clayton, M. (1997) ‘Plateau-phase cultures: an experimental model for identifying drugs which are bioactivated within the microenvironment of solid tumoursBritish Journal of Cancer , 75 (2), pp. 196-201. ISSN 0007-0920

Traver, R., Siegel, D., Beall, H., Phillips, R., Gibson, N., Franklin, W. and Ross, D. (1997) ‘Characterization of a polymorphism in NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase (DT-diaphorase).British Journal of Cancer , 75 (1), pp. 69-75. ISSN 0007-0920


Phillips, R (1996) ‘Bioreductive activation of a series of analogues of 5-aziridinyl-3-hydroxymethyl-1-methyl-2-[1H-indole-4, 7-dione] prop-beta-en-alpha-ol (EO9) by human DT-diaphoraseBiochemical Pharmacology , 52 (11), pp. 1711-1718. ISSN 0006-2952

Aitken, R., Bibby, M., Double, J., Phillips, R. and Sharma, S. (1996) ‘Synthesis and antitumour activity of new derivatives of flavone-8-acetic acid (FAA). Part 1: 6-Methyl derivativesArchiv der Pharmazie , 329 (11), pp. 489-497.


Phillips, R., de la Cruz, A., Traver, R. and Gibson, N. (1994) ‘Increased activity and expression of NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase in confluent cell cultures and within multicellular spheroidsCancer Research , 54 (14), pp. 3766-3771. ISSN 0008-5472

Ross, D., Beall, H., Traver, R., Siegel, D., Phillips, R. and Gibson, N. (1994) ‘Bioactivation of quinones by DT-diaphorase, molecular, biochemical, and chemical studiesOncology Research , 6 (10-11), pp. 493-500.

Gibson, N., Phillips, R. and Ross, D. (1994) ‘Mitomycin CCancer Chemotherapy and Biological Response Modifiers , 15, pp. 51-57. ISSN 0921-4410


Matthew, A., Phillips, R., Loadman, P. and Bibby, M. (1993) ‘Pre-clinical evaluation of a novel chloroethylating agent, ClomesoneBritish Journal of Cancer , 67 (3), pp. 441-446. ISSN 0007-0920


Woldermariam, T., Fell, A., Linley, P., Bibby, M. and Phillips, R. (1992) ‘Evaluation of the anti-tumour action and acute toxicity of kosins from Hagenia abyssinica.Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis , 10 (8), pp. 555-560. ISSN 07317085

Phillips, R., Hulbert, P., Bibby, M., Sleigh, N. and Double, J. (1992) ‘In vitro activity of the novel indoloquinone EO-9 and the influence of pH on cytotoxicityBritish Journal of Cancer , 65 (3), pp. 359-364. ISSN 0007-0920

Aghil, O., Bibby, M., Carrington, S., Double, J., Douglas, K., Phillips, R. and Shing, T. (1992) ‘Synthesis and cytotoxicity of shikimate analogues. Structure:activity studies based on 1-crotonyloxymethyl-3R,4R,5R-trihydroxycyclohex-2-enoneAnti-Cancer Drug Design , 7 (1), pp. 67-82. ISSN 0266-9536


Bibby, M., Phillips, R. and Double, J. (1991) ‘The relationship between tissue levels of flavone acetic acid (NSC 347512) and site dependent anti-tumour activity in murine colon tumours.British Journal of Cancer , 63 (4), pp. 541-545. ISSN 0007-0920

Phillips, R., Bibby, M., Double, J. and Loadman, P. (1991) ‘The relationship between the in vitro chemosensitivity of tumor cells and tumor response in vivo in an experimental tumor modelInternational journal of cell cloning , 9 (2), pp. 144-154.

Bibby, M., Phillips, R., Double, J. and Pratesi, G. (1991) ‘Anti-tumour activity of flavone acetic acid (NSC 347512) in mice--influence of immune statusBritish Journal of Cancer , 63 (1), pp. 57-62. ISSN 0007-0920

Bibby, M., Double, J., Phillips, R. and Quinn, P. (1991) ‘Flavone acetic acid: is vascular shutdown the crucial mechanism of action.International Journal of Radiation Biology , 60 (1-2), pp. 395-399.


Phillips, R., Bibby, M. and Double, J. (1990) ‘A critical appraisal of the predictive value of in vitro chemosensitivity assaysJournal of the National Cancer Institute , 82 (18), pp. 1457-1468. ISSN 1460-2105


Bibby, M., Phillips, R. and Double, J. (1989) ‘Influence of site on the chemosensitivity of transplantable murine colon tumours to flavone acetic acid (LM975, NSC 347512).Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology , 24 (2), pp. 87-94. ISSN 0344-5704


Phillips, R., Bibby, M. and Double, J. (1988) ‘In vitro and in vivo responses of a panel of murine colon tumours to TCNU: a positive correlationEuropean Journal of Cancer , 24 (8), pp. 1365-1371. ISSN 0959-8049

Phillips, R., Bibby, M. and Double, J. (1988) ‘Experimental correlations of in vitro drug sensitivity with in vivo responses to ThioTEPA in a panel of murine colon tumours.Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology , 21 (2), pp. 168-172. ISSN 0344-5704

Bibby, M., Double, J., Phillips, R., Loadman, P. and Gummer, J. (1988) ‘Experimental anti-tumor effects of flavone acetic acid (LM975)Progress in Clinical and Biological Research , 280, pp. 243-246.


Bibby, M., Double, J., Phillips, R. and Loadman, P. (1987) ‘Factors involved in the anti-cancer activity of the investigational agents LM985 (flavone acetic acid ester) and LM975 (flavone acetic acid).British Journal of Cancer , 55 (2), pp. 159-163. ISSN 0007-0920

Bibby, M., McDermott, B., Double, J., Phillips, R., Loadman, P. and Burgess, L. (1987) ‘Influence of the tissue distribution of ThioTEPA and its metabolite, TEPA, on the response of murine colon tumoursCancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology , 20 (3), pp. 203-206. ISSN 0344-5704


Roger Phillips is a committee member for the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Drug Discovery Committee and the EORTC Pharmacology and Molecular Mechanism (PAMM) group. He also serves on the editorial board for the British Journal of Pharmacology. He has served as a consultant for various companies and charities and has also served as an expert witness in intellectual property cases (Canada). He regularly presents his research at International and National conferences and has examined over 40 PhD students in the UK, Malaysia and New Zealand. He has also external examiner for MSc programs (University of Edinburgh, Napier), BSc programs (University of Central Lancashire) and the Royal College of Radiologists, London.  

Research Degree Supervision

Roger has served as Director of Post-Graduate Research at the Institute of Cancer Therapeutics, University of Bradford and is currently departmental co-ordinator of post-graduate research in Pharmacy. He has an extensive record of successful PhD and MPhil supervision and details of students who have graduated under his supervision are presented below.

  1. K Nicholson.  (PhD). Preclinical evaluation of novel tubulin binders in cancer chemotherapy. (1997).  
  2. CM Jarrett. (PhD). Distribution of wild type and mutant DT-diaphorase in human lung, ovarian and melanoma patients. (1999).
  3. H Knowles (PhD). The microenvironment of tumours as a target for anti-cancer drug development. (2000).
  4. GA Chowdry (PhD). Influence of extracellular pH on the activity of anticancer drugs (2001).
  5. J Pearce (MPhil). Evaluation of the hollow fibre technique for drug evaluation. (2001).
  6. VA Phillips (PhD). Synthesis and evaluation of pyrimidine-N-oxides as novel bioreductive drugs (2003).
  7. V Pallit (MPhil) Analysis of hypoxia regulated proteins in bladder and prostate cancer (2005).
  8. M Volpato (PhD). Analysis of tumour metabolism of bioreductive drugs as a means of evaluating novel compounds (2005).
  9. J Basu. (PhD) Assays to predict the response of human bladder cancer patients to Mitomycin C. (2005).
  10. L Bellis (PhD). Synthesis and biological evaluation of polyamine conjugated prodrugs. (2006).
  11. S Seville (PhD). Synthesis and evaluation of novel bioreductively activated prodrugs (2006). 
  12. J Cheridan (MPhil) Expression of matrix metalloproteinases in carcinoma in situ of bladder (2006).
  13. N Yeomans (MPhil) Influence of hypoxia on the response of patients with colo-rectal cancer to radiotherapy (2006).
  14. VS Lim (PhD). Characterisation and validation of hepsin as a target for anti-cancer drug development (2007).
  15. Q Abdallah (PhD). Pharmacological strategies for improving the delivery of EO9 to tumours and the development of predictive markers of response (2008).
  16. H Evans (PhD). Synthesis of bespoke matrices to investigate a novel anti-tumour molecular target using affinity chromatography (2011).
  17. K McMahon (PhD). A systems biology approach to target identification using 3 dimensional multicell spheroids (MCTS) (2011).
  18. H Makeen (PhD). The penetration of anticancer drugs through avascular tissue and the impact of high interstitial fluid pressure on drug delivery (2012).
  19. N Kazmi (PhD) Intelligent modelling for tumour growth dynamics and the constraints of drug efficacy (2012).
  20. L Consentino (PhD). Towards the development of fluorescent probes targeting Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH) in cancer (2012).
  21. R Khorshed (PhD). A cell level automated approach for quantifying antibody staining in immunohistochemistry images (2013).
  22. M Umer Saleem (PhD). Preclinical evaluation of pharmacological strategies designed to enhance the activity of established and novel anti-cancer drugs (2014).
  23. C Evans (PhD): The biological and therapeutic significance of tumour necrosis (2014).
  24. M Zraikat (PhD) Development of in vitro models of invasion for the pharmacological investigation of small molecule inhibitors of tumour progression (2014). 

Postgraduate research opportunities with Professor Roger Phillips