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I graduated from the University of East Anglia with a BSc(Hons) in Chemistry. After studying analytical chemistry at the University of Liverpool and computer interfacing at Middlesex Polytechnic I went on to work in The Catalysis Research Unit under Prof. Phil Barnes at Leeds Metropolitan University, obtaining my PhD there in the area of novel thermal analysis techniques. After spending a year at the University of Central Lancashire, I moved to the University of Huddersfield and became a lecturer in Analytical Chemistry.
I have taught a range of topics including physical and analytical chemistry but, since 2002, I have been mainly involved on our Forensic & Analytical Science degree being responsible for the 1st and 2nd year Practical Forensic Science modules and also contributing to the Crime Scene Investigation module.
MWTA uses microwave energy as a means of simultaneously heating a sample and detecting thermal transitions (phase changes, decomposition, etc.) through changes in the samples dielectric properties. For certain systems, MWTA has the potential for greater sensitivity than conventional thermal analysis.
SCTA is a family of techniques where the heating rate is governed, via a feedback loop, by the rate of a thermal process undergone by the sample. SCTA can provide near uniform reaction conditions, through the elimination of temperature gradients, which leads to enhanced resolution and kinetic data.
The use of single mode cavities and variable power microwave generators allows for the controlled heating of materials to produce products that can have different characteristics to those heated using conventional techniques. Currently, the effect of microwave heating/processing is being investigated in the:
The preparation, activation and characterisation of carbons for use as adsorbents and catalyst supports.
Waters, L., Hanrahan, J., Tobin, J., Finch, C., Parkes, G., Ahmad, S., Mohammad, F. and Saleem, M. (2018) ‘Enhancing the dissolution of phenylbutazone using Syloid® based mesoporous silicas for oral equine applications’ Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis . ISSN 2095-1779
Hussain, T., Waters, L., Parkes, G. and Shahzad, Y. (2017) ‘Microwave processed solid dispersions for enhanced dissolution of gemfibrozil using non-ordered mesoporous silica’ Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects , 520, pp. 428-435. ISSN 0927-7757
Bullock, S., Davidson, F., Faulkner, R., Parkes, G., Rice, C. and Towns-Andrews, E. (2017) ‘Control of metallo-supramolecular assemblies via steric, hydrogen bonding and argentophilic interactions; formation of a 3-dimensional polymer of circular helicates’ CrystEngComm , 19 (9), pp. 1273-1278. ISSN 1466-8033
Shokry, D., Waters, L., Parkes, G. and Mitchell, J. (2016) ‘The Use of Bile Salt Micelles for the Prediction of Human Intestinal Absorption’ Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 105 (12), pp. 3611-3614. ISSN 0022-3549
Waters, L., Shokry, D. and Parkes, G. (2016) ‘Predicting human intestinal absorption in the presence of bile salt with micellar liquid chromatography’ Biomedical Chromatography . ISSN 1099-0801
Waters, L., Hussain, T. and Parkes, G. (2014) ‘Thermodynamics of micellisation: Sodium dodecyl sulfate/sodium deoxycholate with polyethylene glycol and model drugs’ Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics , 77, pp. 77-81. ISSN 0021-9614
Harding, L., Parkes, G. and Townend, J. (2014) ‘Parameters affecting ion intensities in transmission-mode Direct Analysis in Real-Time mass spectrometry’ Analyst , 139 (17), pp. 4176-4180. ISSN 0003-2654
Fidalgo, B., Williams, H., Dawson, E. and Parkes, G. (2014) ‘Conventional and microwave-heated oxygen pulsing techniques on metal-doped activated carbons’ Journal of Porous Materials , 21 (1), pp. 81-89. ISSN 1380-2224
Waters, L., Hussain, T., Parkes, G., Hanrahan, J. and Tobin, J. (2013) ‘Inclusion of fenofibrate in a series of mesoporous silicas using microwave irradiation’ European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics , 85 (3 (B)), pp. 936-941. ISSN 0939-6411
Bostock, E., Parkes, G. and Williams, G. (2013) ‘A novel method for the analysis of slash cuts to clothing’ Journal of Forensic Research . ISSN 2157-7145
Dawson, E., Parkes, G. and Branton, P. (2012) ‘Synthesis of Vegetable-Based Activated Carbons with Mixed Micro- and Mesoporosity for Use in Cigarette Filters’ Adsorption Science and Technology , 30 (10), pp. 859-866. ISSN 0263-6174
Cross, H., Parkes, G. and Brown, D. (2012) ‘Microwave calcination of Cu/Mg/Al hydrotalcite catalyst precursor’ Applied Catalysis A: General , 429/30, pp. 24-30. ISSN 0926860X
Hussain, T., Waters, L. and Parkes, G. (2011) ‘Pharmaceutical Analysis: Drug-micelle interactions’ Swiss Pharma , 33 (10), p. 36. ISSN 0251-1673
Waters, L., Bedford, S. and Parkes, G. (2011) ‘Controlled Microwave Processing Applied to the Pharmaceutical Formulation of Ibuprofen’ AAPS PharmSciTech , 12 (4), pp. 1038-1043. ISSN 1530-9932
Charsley, E., Laye, P., Parkes, G. and Rooney, J. (2011) ‘Development and applications of a sample controlled DSC system’ Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry , 105 (2), pp. 699-703. ISSN 1388-6150
Waters, L., Bedford, S., Parkes, G. and Mitchell, J. (2010) ‘Influence of lipophilicity on drugcyclodextrin interactions: A calorimetric study’ Thermochimica Acta , 511 (1-2), pp. 102-106. ISSN 00406031
Dawson, E., Parkes, G., Bond, G. and Mao, R. (2009) ‘A system to investigate the remediation of organic vapors using microwave-induced plasma with fluidized carbon granules’ Review of Scientific Instruments , 80 (3), p. 034102. ISSN 00346748
Williams, H., Dawson, E., Barnes, P., Parkes, G., Pears, L. and Hindmarsh, C. (2008) ‘A new low temperature approach to developing mesoporosity in metal-doped carbons for adsorption and catalysis’ Journal of Porous Materials , 16 (5), pp. 557-564. ISSN 1380-2224
Williams, H. and Parkes, G. (2008) ‘Activation of a phenolic resin-derived carbon in air using microwave thermogravimetry’ Carbon , 46 (8), pp. 1169-1172. ISSN 0008-6223
Dawson, E., Parkes, G., Barnes, P., Bond, G. and Mao, R. (2008) ‘The generation of microwave-induced plasma in granular active carbons under fluidised bed conditions’ Carbon , 46 (2), pp. 220-228. ISSN 00086223
Kumar, B., Nair, S., Parkes, G., Barnes, P., Sibley, M. and Bond, G. (2006) ‘Development of a novel instrument for microwave dielectric thermal analysis’ Review of Scientific Instruments , 77, pp. 045108-1. ISSN 0034-6748
Barnes, P., Charsley, E. and Parkes, G. (2006) ‘SCTA for pharma’ European Pharmaceutical Review (4). ISSN 1360-8606
Barnes, P., Charsley, E. and Parkes, G. (2006) ‘Recent developments in advanced thermal analysis: sample controlled thermal analysis’ European Pharmaceutical Review , 11 (4), pp. 83-98. ISSN 1360-8606
Fesenko, E., Barnes, P. and Parkes, G. (2004) ‘SCTA and catalysis’. In: Sample Controlled Thermal Analysis. New York, USA: Springer. pp. 174-225. ISBN 978-1-4020-1563-2
Fesenko, E., Barnes, P., Parkes, G., Brown, D. and Naderi, M. (2003) ‘Application of SCTA to the study of the reactivity of acid-base catalysts’ Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry , 72 (3), pp. 1103-1105. ISSN 14182874
Dawson, E., Parkes, G., Barnes, P. and Chinn, M. (2003) ‘An investigation of the porosity of carbons prepared by constant rate activation in air’ Carbon , 41 (3), pp. 571-578. ISSN 00086223
Charsley, E., Rooney, J., Hill, J., Parkes, G., Barnes, P. and Dawson, E. (2003) ‘Development and applications of a preparative scale sample controlled thermogravimetric system’ Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry , 72 (3), pp. 1091-1092. ISSN 14182874
Charsley, E., Stewart, C., Barnes, P. and Parkes, G. (2003) ‘Development and applications of sample controlled thermomicroscopy’ Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry , 72 (3), pp. 1087-1090. ISSN 14182874
Naderi, M., Dale, J., Parkes, G. and Brown, D. (2002) ‘Solvation of exchangeable cations in sulfonated polystyrene ion-exchange resins: an ESR study’ Reactive and Functional Polymers , 51 (1), p. 25. ISSN 1381-5148
Dawson, E., Parkes, G., Barnes, P., Chinn, M., Pears, A. and Hindmarsh, C. (2002) ‘A study of evolved gas control and its effect on carbon yield during the activation of carbon fibres by controlled rate methods’ Carbon , 40 (15), pp. 2897-2903. ISSN 00086223
Fesenko, E., Barnes, P., Parkes, G., Dawson, E. and Tiernan, M. (2002) ‘Catalyst Characterisation and Preparation Using Sample Controlled Thermal TechniquesHigh Resolution Studies and the Determination of the Energetics of Surface and Bulk Processes’ Topics in Catalysis , 19 (3/4), pp. 283-301. ISSN 1022-5528
Tiernan, M., Fesenko, E., Barnes, P., Parkes, G. and Ronane, M. (2001) ‘The application of CRTA and linear heating thermoanalytical techniques to the study of supported cobalt oxide methane combustion catalysts’ Thermochimica Acta , 379 (1-2), pp. 163-175. ISSN 0040-6031
Tiernan, M., Barnes, P. and Parkes, G. (2001) ‘Reduction of iron oxide catalysts: the investigation of kinetic parameters using rate perturbation and linear heating thermoanalytical techniques’ Journal of Physical Chemistry B , 105, pp. 220-228. ISSN 1089-5647
Barnes, P., Fesenko, E., Parkes, G., Brown, D. and Naderi, M. (2001) ‘A new approach to the study of the reactivity of solid-acid catalysts: the application of constant rate thermal analysis to the desorption and surface reaction of isopropylamine from NaY and HY zeolites’ Journal of Physical Chemistry B , 105, pp. 6178-6185. ISSN 1089-5647
Microwave thermal analysis is a new materials characterization technique that can detect thermal processes such as phase changes, decomposition, etc., via changes in a materials dielectric properties as revealed by its ability to couple with microwave energy as a function of temperature.
Activated carbons have an important role in the removal of contaminants and pollutants, both in air and water, through physical adsorption. The choice of pre-cursor, carbonisation, surface treatment and pore development steps are all crucial in determining the properties of the product carbon.